The disease is predominantly caused by smoking

The airflow obstruction is usually progressive, not fully reversible and does not change markedly over several months. The disease is predominantly caused by smoking.” COPD is the preferred umbrella term for the airflow obstruction associated with the diseases of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. These are closely related to, but not synonymous with, COPD..

pandora essence Future targeted research is warranted to identify preventive strategies to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease among patients with migraine.IntroductionMigraine is a primary headache disorder that affects approximately one fifth of the general US population for at least part of their lives, and women are affected three to four times more often than men.1 2 3 Migraine, specifically migraine with aura, has been consistently associated with increased risk of stroke, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes.4 5 Although the pathophysiology of migraine has close links to the vascular system, the mechanisms by which migraine increases risk of stroke remain unclear.6 7 Potential mechanisms for an association between migraine and stroke include endovascular dysfunction,8 9 increased thrombogenic susceptibility,10 increased prevalence of vascular risk factors,11 shared genetic markers,12 13 cortical spreading depolarization,14 15 and inflammation.16 17As most of these mechanisms also increase the risk of other cardiovascular disease events pandora bracelets, migraine may be viewed as a marker of increased risk for any vascular disease event. However, as the one year prevalence of migraine peaks in midlife whereas the incidence of cardiovascular events increases exponentially with age, links between migraine and any cardiovascular disease are not easily identifiable. Long follow up, particularly of younger populations, is needed to study this association. pandora essence

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